7. List and descriptions of varieties of C. arabica
1) Acaiá – a hybrid of Mundo Novo from Brazil. The plant has big leaves and berries. Its main shortages are sensibility towards various coffee diseases and bug attacks. Acaiá is a rather rare variety.
2) Agaro – a coffee variety originating from Ethiopia.
3) Alghe – a coffee variety originating from Ethiopia.
4) Amarella/Amarello – its berries are yellow as the variety name also refers. Amarella is not a common plant.
5) Amarello de Botocatu – a sub-variety of Typica with yellow berries. Might be identical to Amarello.
6) Angustifolia – originates from the plantation of P. J. S. Cramer¹⁶. The plant has narrow leaves, oblong berries and its productivity is quite low.
7) Apoatà –
8) Arabigo – a natural mutation of Typica, which can be found in South- and Latin America.
9) Arla – is an Indonesian hybrid of C. canephora and C. arabica.
10) Arusha – a sub-variety of Bourbon originating from Papua New Guinea.
11) Barbuk Sudan – was discovered in 1940s in Boma plateau in Sudan (Ethiopia).
12) Bedesa –
13) Bergendal – a sub-variety of Typica. One of the few that managed to survive the Leaf Rust epidemic in Indonesia in 1880s.
14) Blawan Paumah – a sub-variety of Typica originating from Sumatra, also grown in the eastern parts of Java.
15) Blue Mountain (Jamaica Blue Mountain) – is claimed to be a mix of Typica and various other varieties. Originally was grown in Jamaican Blue Mountains. Over time people started to call it after its place of origin or Blue Mountain. Now it is being cultivated too on Kona Island in Hawaii, where it is known under the name Guatemala. Genetically these two are undistinguishable. Beginning from 1913 it is being cultivated also in West Kenya (in other parts of Kenya the variety didn’t begin to grow). Blue Mountain is resistant to coffee berry disease and capable of growing on great heights. Nevertheless, it is not capable of acclimatizing in all climate conditions and keeps the high taste qualities irrespective of location.
16) Bogor Prada – a hybrid of C. arabica and C. canephora. Originates from Indonesia.
17) Bourbon (French Mission) – a natural mutation of Typica, originates from Bourbon island (nowadays called Réunion, since 1848), where the Frenchmen planted it in 1708. The plant was brought in from Yemen (according to some sources it was acquired from the Dutch. There is also a possibility that this plant originates from Yemen and was passed on by the Dutch). Bourbon is also known under the name French Mission after the French missionaries who brought the coffee variety from the island to the East African mainland in 1897. Bourbon’s productivity is 20-30% higher compared to Typica, but it is nevertheless considered to be a variety with small productivity compared to other common coffee plants. Bourbon is less conical of shape than Typica but has more secondary branches. The angle of secondary branches towards the trunk is smaller and the arrangement of branches is side by side or close. Leaves are wide and fluctuant on the edges. Berries are rather small and thick and stand in clusters in intervals of one knob. They ripen quickly and will drop easily in the periods of strong wind and rain. The berries can also be: red, yellow or pink, according to the sub-variety. Red, yellow and pink Bourbon are varieties with natural mutations of one recessive gene. Color of the berry is affected by the mentioned gene. The best coffee quality is achieved when the plant’s growing ground stays in the range of 1050-2000m above sea level. Bourbon is known for its complex acidity and wonderful balance. Fullness is low. According to Willem boot, the acidity of Bourbon is intense and aftertaste winy and sweet. Bourbon grown in highlands is said to include always some floral aroma.
1. Red Bourbon (red) –
2. Yellow Bourbon – is it thought to have arisen as a result of crossing of Amarello de Botocatu and red Bourbon. Yellow Bourbon originates from Brazil.
3. Pink Bourbon –
4. Bourbon Pointu –
18) Bugishu – common in Uganda.
19) Bullata – originates from the plantation of P. J. S. Cramer. Has wide leaves with wavy edges. Branches are thick, stiff and fragile. Berries are rich in flesh and often with empty seeds.
20) C387 –
21) Castillo (F10) – considered to be high quality Colombia (sub-variety of Colombia) and it has become the most grown coffee variety in Columbia.
22) Catimor – hybrid of Hibrido de Timor and Caturra that was bred in 1959 in Portugal. Breeding gave a plant with high productivity and resistance towards coffee berry disease and leaf rust, which was the main goal of the scientists. Berries ripen early but in order to guarantee high productivity the plant needs correct fertilizing and shading. In low growth heights there is little or no sensory difference between Catimor and other C. arabica varieties. Distinction in taste comes to the fore when the plants are planted higher than 1200m above sea level. In such case Caturra, Bourbon and CatuaÍ have better taste qualities than Catimor. The plant was introduced in Brazil in 1970. Some years later it was widely spread in Latin America by „experts“. Later it appeared that this variety lacks the quality needed for wider marketing, leaving many farmers growing Catimor in great difficulties. In Indonesia, Catimor has a short life span – around 10 years. Its branch is ramified similarly to C. canephoraplants. Acidity features often some bitterness, astringency and somewhat salty aftertaste.
1. Catimor T-8667 – is a rather short plant with very big berries and seeds.
2. Catimor T-5269 – a strong plant that adapts well on growing heights between 600-900m above sea level with rainfall more than 3000mm per annum.
3. Catimor T-5175 – is a productive and robust plant that doesn’t tolerate very low and very high growing conditions.
23) Catisic – „variety“ of Catimor in El Salvador.
24) Catrenic – „variety“ of Catimor in Nicaragua. Growing begin from 1980s.
25) CatuaÍ – a hybrid of Mundo Novo and yellow Caturra originating from Brazil from late 1940s. Forms ca 50% of all the coffee varieties grown in the country. The plant is low in height, wherefore it is considered to be a dwarf. It is very resistant towards elemental forces like strong wind and rain as its berries will not drop easily. Other branches form an acute angle in relation to the stem. CatuaÍ is a plant of high productivity and it can be planted very closely. For best results it needs sufficient and correct fertilization and care. It is widely spread in Latin America. Berries can be red or yellow. It is a common opinion that there is no difference in taste of the seeds from yellow and red berries, but some sources¹⁷ claim the taste qualities of yellow CatuaÍ to be lower, as the coffee cools down, the aftertaste acquires unclean mouthfeel reminding petroleum, as red CatuaÍ preserves the purity of its taste.
The most stable taste quality is its sweetness, which is mainly dependent on fertilization. Right fertilization gives greater sweetness. Natural compost also intensifies the sweetness and improves the overall taste.
1. CatuaÍ Amarelo (yellow) –
2. CatuaÍ Vermelho (red) –
3. CatuaÍ 8 –
4. CatuaÍ 10 –
26) CatucaÍ –
27) Caturra – a mutation of Bourbon discovered in Brazil, near town called Caturra in 1937. Originally it was grown in Minas Gerais region in Brazil, later Caturra was spread all over the Latin America. Caturra has high productivity (it tops the productivity of Bourbon by 200kg /ha and in good conditions even by more than two tons per hectare) and good quality but it needs constant care, trimming and fertilizing. It can be planted very closely, up to 10 000 trees per 1 ha (usually 6000 trees per ha). The plant is short, with stout trunk and has many secondary branches. Due to its small growth it is considered to be a dwarf. Caturra has big leaves with wavy edges. It acclimatizes well with various surroundings but best results are achieved at 800m, with average rainfall of 2500-3500mm. Greater heights raise the taste quality but reduce its productivity. Today, Caturra is most common in Columbia, Costa Rica and Nicaragua, but not in Brazil, its country of origin. Caturra is a coffee with rich acidity, with top notes of citrus fruits and orange, low to medium fullness and with less purity and sweetness compared to Bourbon. Acidity increases with greater heights.
1. Caturra Amarelo – berries of yellow Caturra might ripen faster than those of red Caturra, also its ripe berries drop down earlier that those of red Caturra. Yellow color is caused by recessive gene. Its taste quality is considered to be a bit weaker compared to red Caturra.
2. Caturra Velmelho –
3. Caturra „Lerdo“ – A mutation discovered recently in Costa Rica. Taste quality is low.
28) Cauvery – claimed to be a sub-variety of Catimor in India. Locals started to grow it from the late 1980s.
29) Cepac 1 – is a local bred hybrid in Bolivia that is suitable for low growing conditions of about 400/500m above sea level. Cepac varieties were created in 2005 by the CEPAC institution, being one branch of the Brazilian National Botanics Development Centre. These varieties were created for distribution amongst poor locals and indigenious so they could start their own coffee plantations and improve their economic situation.
30) Cepac 2 –
31) Cepac 3 –
32) Cera – originates from Brazil.
33) Chickumalgu – is a natural Indian mutation of Typica.
34) Colombia (Variedad Colombia) – is a variety bred from Catimor in Columbia in 1985. The variety was bred to fight different diseases and to increase productivity. During the last twenty years, Colombia has been the breeding base for different sub-varietie – F1-F10. The sort gives both red and yellow berries. Despite the high acidity they usually lack of strong sweetness and purity in taste.
35) Columnaris – originates from the plantation of P. J. S. Cramer and is a very robust plant. It can grow up to 7,5m in height. Leaves are round. Productivity is low and it grows in a very dry environment.
36) Costa Rica 95 – originates from Costa Rica.
37) Creole – a Latin American mutation of Typica.
38) Criollo/Criolla – a natural mutation of Typica common in Peru, Bolivia and Columbia. Allegedly in some South and Latin American states Typica is called Criollo.
39) Coorg – was grown in India in 1870s.
40) Dalle – is a variety considered by Wintgens to be a „spontaneous accession“. The variety originates from Ethiopia and it was spread in Tanzania, Kenya, Kivu and India during 1930-1955. Here we are talking about seeds gathered from individual trees whose descendants go through changes on genetical level and form a separate so called variety.
41) Deiga/Dega – is a variety of Ethiopian origin.
42) Devamachy – is an Indian hybrid of C. canephora and C. arabica discovered in 1930s.
43) Di-haploid –
44) Dilla – is a variety considered by Wintgens to be a „spontaneous accession“. The variety originates from Ethiopia and it was spread in Tanzania, Kenya, Kivu and India during 1930-1955. Here we are talking about seeds gathered from individual trees whose descendants go through changes on genetical level and form a separate so called variety.
45) Ennarea – is a variety considered by Wintgens to be a „spontaneous accession“. The variety originates from Ethiopia and it was spread in Tanzania, Kenya, Kivu and India during 1930-1955. Here we are talking about seeds gathered from individual trees whose descendants go through changes on genetical level and form a separate so called variety.
46) Erecta – originates from the plantation of P. J. S. Cramer and nowadays is common in Indonesia and Kenya. Erecta is stronger than other variety of C. arabica, but similar in terms of productivity. Suitable for areas with strong winds.
47) Essaii –
48) E-238 –
49) E-536 –
50) ET-5 –
51) ET-6 –
52) ET-12 –
53) ET-18 –
54) ET-32B –
55) ET-52 –
56) ET-59 –
57) Garica –
58) Garnica – a variety similar to CatuaÍ in Mexico, a hybrid of Mundo Novo and yellow Caturra.
59) Garundang – a natural mutation of Typica in Sumatra.
60) Geisha/Gesha – a very rare variety that was rediscovered in Panama in 2005. In 1931, a British ambassador of that time picked (probably from different coffee trees) a bunch of coffee berries in the southwest part of Ethiopia, near a town called Geisha¹⁸ to use them in his research. In 1932, the seeds were exported to Kenya to Kitale centre under the name of Abyssinia or Geisha. In 1936, the sprouts from Geisha seeds were sent to Kwanda station in Uganda and Lyamungu station in Tanzania. In 1953 (1956), the Geisha seeds were sent from Tanzania to Costa Rica CATIE centre¹⁹ where the attempts to grow Geisha began. In 1963, first Geisha seeds were brought from Costa Rica to Panama by a man called Don Pachi Serracin. Original attempts to grow Geisha in Panama and Costa Rica were aborted as the plant gave poor taste qualities. Later it appeared that the bad taste quality was caused by too low growing altitude.
Geisha is considered to be a coffee with „the most brilliantly complex and intense flavor profile of all“²º. Nowadays, Geisha is mainly grown in Panama and Costa Rica. Best quality is achieved when the growing height goes above 1500m, but for the perfect taste, the height has to be quite punctual. Trees are high and rarefied. Leaves are oblong and narrow. Oblong are also berries and seeds. Geisha is considered to be a plant of low productivity. It is resistant towards leaf rust and also a fungus called Ojo de Gallo. During roasting, Geisha is claimed to act similar to Harrar coffee of Ethiopian origin. After the first crack it tends to roast quickly, therefore it is recommended to roast it on medium heat in the first phase of roasting. Geisha has rich and sweet, extremely pure taste and intensive aroma of berries, citrus fruits, mango, papaya or peach. Stumptown describes Geisha as following: „To date, it is the champion of coffee varietals“²º.
61) Gimma – is a variety considered by Wintgens to be a „spontaneous accession“. The variety originates from Ethiopia and it was spread in Tanzania, Kenya, Kivu and India during 1930-1955. Here we are talking about seeds gathered from individual trees whose descendants go through changes on genetical level and form a separate so called variety.
62) Goiaba –
63) Guatemala –
64) Harrar –
65) Hibrido de Timor (HdT) – a natural hybrid of C. arabica and C. canephora, discovered in 1920s in Timor. The name Hibrido de Timor is used in South and Latin America. In Indonesia, the variety is known as Tim Tim or Bor Bor. The variety is cultivated mainly for its good resistance towards leaf rust. Hibrido de Timor has found extensive use in different breeding projects with the purpose to breed sorts with higher resistance towards leaf rust. For example: Catimor, Sarchimor in Brazil, Ruiru 11 in Kenya, Colombia in Columbia and Costa Rica 95 in Costa Rica. They all lack of good taste qualities due to their C. canephora genes. In 1950s, it was planned to replace all other varieties of C. arabica in Timor with Hibrido de Timor.
66) IAPAR 95 – is a sub-variety of Sarchimor in Brazil, released in 1993 by IAPAR.
67) ICAFE 95 – is a sub-variety of Catimor in Costa Rica. Growing of this sub-variety began in 1995.
68) Icatú – is a hybrid bred in Brazil. During the breeding a hybrid of Bourbon and Robusta was crossed with different varieties of C.arabica, like Caturra and Mundo Novo. It is known that the plant existed already in 1985, but its official vintage year is 1993. Icatú is a high tree with big berries. Favorable growing height begins on 800m above sea level. It is highly resistant towards the leaf rust disease. Its crop is 30-50% larger compared to Mundo Novo. Icatú is considered to be a capable variety as in 2008 it figured in Cup of Excellence. Typical taste qualities are: low acidity, medium to high body and sweetness resembling to dark chocolate.
69) IHCAFE 90 – is a variety of Catimor in Honduras. Growing began in the early 1980s.
70) Jackson – is a sub-variety of Bourbon, grown in Rwanda and Burundi.
71) Jamaique –
72) Java – has gotten its name after Java Island. P. J. S. Cramer brought a selection of varieties of C. arabica in 1928 from Ethiopia to Java Island. Later the descendants of those varieties were taken to Cameroon. The seeds and berries of Java are oblong. Young leaves are bronzed. In Cameroon conditions it gives 1,5-2 tons of coffee per 1 ha, whereas Caturra and Mundo Novo give only 1 ton of coffee per 1 ha in same conditions.
73) Javanica –
74) Jember (S795) – look S795.
75) K 7 – is a coffee variety bred in Kenya similar to SL²¹ varieties. K 7 was bred of two French Mission coffee trees from Muhoron Legetet plantation. The plant has narrow leaves with coppery tips. During its first years the plant displayed strong resistance towards the leaf rust disease. Second and third generations were resistant towards any diseases. The taste quality puts K 7 rather in Ruiru 11 class.
76) K 20 – was bred in Kenya from high growing French Mission trees in Kiambu Kentmere plantations. The purpose of breeding was to raise the taste qualities but the plant was highly receptive to coffee berry disease.
77) Kaffa – is a variety considered by Wintgens to be a „spontaneous accession“. The variety originates from Ethiopia and it was spread in Tanzania, Kenya, Kivu and India during 1930-1955. Here we are talking about seeds gathered from individual trees whose descendants go through changes on genetical level and form a separate so called variety.
78) Kalimas – is a hybrid of C. arabica and C. liberica, created after the great orange leaf rust epidemic that ravaged in the second half of 19th century in Indonesia.
79) Kartika – grows in Indonesia.
80) Kawisari – is another hybrid of C. arabica and C. liberica, created after the great orange leaf rust epidemic in the second half of 19th century in Indonesia.
81) Kent – according to one source, Kent is a natural mutation of Typica discovered in India. According to others it was bred in Kenya in 1911. During the breeding different varieties of Tanganyika were used from Mysore, India. From 1920 Kent was planted widely in India. In 1934, Kent was planted to Meru in Kenya. Sort has high productivity and partial resistance towards the leaf rust disease.
82) Kenya Selected (K.S.) – in the middle of 1920s, A.D. Trench used French Mission (Bourbon) coffee to breed a variety called Kenya Selected. A.D. Trench was a coffee officer of the colonial government. Later he introduced in addition to Trench Kenya Selected also varieties called „Series A“ and „Series B“.
83) K.S. Series A – resistant to cold and hot climate conditions.
84) K.S. Series B – resistance qualities resemble to Harrar of Ethiopian origin.
85) Kona – a hybrid of Typica, grows on the islands of Hawaii.
86) Kubure –
87) Kurumè/Kurumia –
88) Laurina – according to P. J. S. Cramer it is a hybrid of C. arabica and C. mauritiana. Originates from the plantation of P.J.S. Cramer in Bagelan from the early 1900s. The plant has small and narrow leaves and berries and seeds are also narrow and oblong. According to Wintgens Laurina or Bourbon Pointu originates from Réunion. Laurina is a sub-variety of Bourbon with recessive gene mutation, which gives this variety very low caffeine concentration (0,6%). Laurina is a plant with low productivity.
89) Lempira – considered being a sub-variety of Catimor in Honduras.
90) Machacamarca – a hybrid of Typica or a Bolivian name for Typica.
91) Maracatu(ra) – a Brazilian hybrid of Maragogype and Caturra. It can mainly be found in Brazil, El Salvador and Nicaragua. It has big leaves and berries. In terms of taste Maracatura has strong and with diverse mature fruity acidity.
92) Maragogype/Maragogipe – a mutation of Typica, which was discovered in Brazil in Maragojipe region of Bahia state. Maragogype is a big and high plant with very big leaves. Its berries and seeds are at least twice the size of a normal coffee berries/seeds. Despite its size, the plant has a low productivity. Maragogype acclimatizes the best in heights of 600-750m above sea level. The plant is spread all over Latin America, but it is most common in Brazil, Guatemala and Mexico. Maragogype can have a havy body in mouthfeel and citrusy and flowery in taste. Taste qualities of Maragogype are often unstable.
93) Mayaguez – a sub-variety of Bourbon, grown in Rwanda and Burundi. Also known under the name of Bourbon Mayaguez.
94) Menosperma – originating from the plantation of P. J. S. Cramer. A plant with narrow leaves with downwards bent branches. Berries usually don’t have above one seed.
95) Mibirizi – a sub-variety of Bourbon, grown in Rwanda and Burundi.
96) Mocha – (some sources have mentioned it as a separate variety) originates from Yemen and is one of the oldest coffee varieties known. It’s a short tree with small berries and leaves; same can be said of its productivity.
97) Mokka (Moka/Mocha) – a mutation of Typica. Grown in Brazil and Hawaii. At some time it was considered to be a species, but actually it is just another C. arabica variety, as the plant has four pairs of chromosomes (as common to C. arabica plants).
98) Mundo Novo – is a natural hybrid of sub-variety of Typica – Sumatra and Bourbon, which was originally discovered in 1940s in Brazil byInstituto Agronômico de Campinase. The plant is strong and resistant to diseases. Productivity of Mundo Novo is high (about 30% higher compared to Bourbon) but the berries ripen a bit later than other varieties´ average. Its best growing heights are between 1050-1670m, with rainfall of 1200-1800mm per annum. Mundo Novo is common amidst Brazilian coffee cultivators, forming ca 40% of all grown coffee varieties. Its taste often lacks sweetness and there might be some sense of bitterness. Rich fertilization and adding nutrients might improve the taste qualities. However, Stephen Leighton describes its taste qualities as sweet, with intense fullness and low acidity.
99) Murta/Mirta – originates from the plantation of P. J. S. Cramer. Plant has small leaves and is resistant towards fierce cold.
100) N 39 – a sub-variety of Bourbon in Tanzania.
101) Nemaya –
102) Obata – was released in 2000 by IAC.
103) „Old Chiks“ – a variety grown in India in 1800s.
104) Oro Azteca – considered being a subspecies of Catimor in Mexico.
105) Ouro Verde – another hybrid of Mundo Novo and red CatuaÍ, released in 2000 in Brazil.
106) Pacaiá – originates from Guatemala.
107) Pacamara – a hybrid of Pacas and Maragogype, which was bred in 1958 in El Salvadoris. Size of the bean comes from Maragogype meaning it is very big. The taste qualities of Pacamara improve in greater growing heights. Its taste profile can be outstandingly good with dominating sweet citrus flavor and well balanced taste, sometimes revealing some flowery notes.
108) Pacas – a mutation of Bourbon or a hybrid of Caturra and Bourbon. It was discovered in El Salvador in 1949 by a man called Pacas. The productivity of Pacas is rather good in higher growing grounds and it resists diseases better than Bourbon. The taste profile of Pacas shows usually elevated acidity and medium body.
109) Pache Colis – was discovered in Mataquescuintla in a farm of Guatemala where Caturra and Pache Comum were cultivated. Coffee berries are very big and leaves with a robust texture. The plant has a partial resistance towards phoma (common soil fungus). It usually grows up to 0.8-1.25m in height and has second and third grade branches. Pache Colis acclimatizes well on growing heights between 900-1830m above sea level within temperature range of 20-21°C.
110) Pache Comum – a natural mutation of Typica, which was originally discovered in Guatemala in farms of El Brito, Santa Cruz Naranjo and Santa Rosa. Pache Comum acclimatizes well on growing heights between 1050-1680m. Its taste is usually described as mild or plain.
111) Pache Enano – is an especially small plant originating from Guatemala.
112) PDRY-7 –
113) PDRY-14 –
114) PDRY-15 –
115) PDRY-22 –
116) Pluma Hidalgo – is a natural mutation of Typica, originates from Sumatra.
117) Pointu – is a mutant of Bourbon, which produces coffee with low caffeine content. It was thought to be extinct for a long period of time but was recently rediscovered in an island of Réunion.
118) Polysperma (Medano coffee) – is a variety with berries usually with six to eight seeds (polysperma – polyspermous).
119) Purpurescens – originates from the plantation of P. J. S. Cramer and is a variety with red leaves and lower productivity compared to other varieties of C. arabica. According to Wintgens the plant has purple leaves.
120) Rasuna – a hybrid of Catimor and Typica, originates from Indonesia. It is a new variety and it is being planted to Takengon region in Sumatra. Tree itself is tall with small and oblong leaves. The best quality is guaranteed when Rasuna is planted on growing heights between 1100-1300m above sea level.
121) Ruiru 11 (R 11) – This Kenyan dwarf variety was created in 1985, in Coffee Research Station, which was established in 1949, in Ruiru city. Ruiru 11 was meant to be a variety resistant towards the leaf rust and coffee berry disease but to also give good quality and productivity. Ruiru 11 is a gene mix of different sorts: Rume Sudan, HdT, K7, Caimor, SL28. Later the result was combined with SL 28 and SL 34-ga in order to improve the taste qualities. Unfortunately the experiment did not give any results due to dominant Robusta genes from Hibrido de Timor. In 1986, Ruiru 11 was made available to coffee growers.
122) Rume Sudan – is a sub-variety of Typica originating from Boma plateau in the southeastern part of Sudan (Ethiopia) and which was discovered in 1940s. In Africa, Rume Sudan is known as being resistant towards coffee berry disease. It has leaves with coppery tips.
123) S.4 – a variety from Ethiopia.
124) S.12 – a variety from Ethiopia.
125) S26 – is a hybrid of C. arabica and C. liberica created in Doobla region in India. This hybrid was created after the great leaf rust epidemic that ravaged in the second half of 19th century in Indonesia.
126) S228 – is a spontaneous hybrid of C. arabica and C. liberica.
127) S795 (Jember) – was bred by Indian botanists from Kent and S228 in 1946. S795 has a SH3 gene which probably originates from C. liberica. This variety is called Jember by Indonesian farmers as it was first introduced to them by the members of Jember Coffee Research Center.The center was located in the second biggest city, Surabaya, in Indonesia, in eastern part of Java. S795 is being widely grown in India and Indonesia. Tasters attribute the Jember the taste of maple syrup, caramel and brown sugar.
128) San Ramón – a natural mutation of Typica from Brazil.
129) São Bernando – a natural mutation of Typica from Brazil.
130) Sarchimor – a hybrid of Villasarchi and Hibrido de Timori. Grows in India and Costa Rica. Thanks to its ascendant, Hibrido de Timor, the plant is resistant towards leaf rust disease and berry borer.
131) Semperflorens – was discovered in Brazil in 1934. The variety has a genetic background of Bourbon, which blooms all year round.
132) Sinde –
133) SL 1 – was created from the first variety of Kenya Selected generation. This variety is hypersensitive towards hostile environment.
134) SL 2 – a sort originating from a tree in Wispers plantation near Nairobi. Similarly to Harrar the variety has leaves with coppery tips but smaller berries.
135) SL 3 – was bred from a plant of French Mission from Ona plantation in Solai region. SL3 is rather alike to SL2. Both varieties have low productivity and are hypersensitive towards leaf rust disease. SL3 has lower taste qualities as its ascendant French Mission.
136) SL 6 – a variety bred from one Kent tree, which has medium wide leaves with coppery tips. Due to its high productivity, SL6 was a big favorite of Scot Laboratory while they were testing the plantations.
137) SL 9 – origin unknown. Coppery leaves indicate that the variety has been influenced by Columnaris, which was brought in from Puerto Rico in 1920s. The productivity of the variety is good on medium growing heights but the plant is highly sensitive towards coffee berry disease.
138) SL 10 – originates from Harrar. Has higher productivity than its ascendants but it didn’t give the quality it was supposed to.
139) SL 14 – originates from D.R. II. Seemingly this variety is resistant towards dry conditions and with high productivity on low heights. SL14 gave round seeds similar to Bourbon and also preferred. On low growing heights SL14 became extremely receptive towards coffee berry disease.
140) SL 17 –
141) SL 18 –
142) SL 19 –
143) SL 20 –
144) SL 26 – is a cross of the sprouts of the first generation of SL3. SL26 has small leaves with green tips, referring to some influence by Bourbon. SL26 was good on low growing heights.
145) SL 28 – was bred in 1931 from Tanganyika D.R (look variety No. 137) and it has become a variety with uniquely high quality. It has wide leaves with coppery tips. Beans are wide and productivity relatively low. The plant shows some influence from Ethiopian and Sudan coffee vaireties. Some sources say that the botanists of Scot Laboratory examined the mutations of French Mission, Mocha and Yemen Typica and bred them into SL 28. Originally their goal was to create a plant with high quality, high productivity and great resistance towards diseases. By taste qualities SL28 is the best of all SL cultivars. SL 28 taste is described to be intensively citrusy, sweet, with balanced taste and multi-layered aroma.
146) SL 34 – is a mutation of French Mission, originating from the plantation of Loresho in Kabete. It has wide leaves with bronzy tips. As to its looks it resembles the variety of Kenya Selected. SL 34 is valued for its high productivity in different climate conditions and great height ranges. It is also claimed to be resistant towards draught and strong rainfall. SL34 taste is defined by complex acidity, heavy body and sweet and clear aftertaste. Unfortunately its taste quality is lower than the one of SL28. Both SL28 and SL34 are considered to be the best cultivars in SL family.
147) SL 59 –
148) Sumatra –
149) Tabi –
150) Tafari-Kela – is a variety considered by Wintgens to be a „spontaneous accession“. The variety originates from Ethiopia and it was spread in Tanzania, Kenya, Kivu and India during 1930-1955. Here we are talking about seeds gathered from individual trees whose descendants go through changes on genetical level and form a separate so called variety.
151) Tanganyika Drought Resistant (D.R.) – A.D. Trench examined coffee trees with leaves with bronzy tips during his trip through the Mondul region in North Tanganyika. These plants were more resistant towards dry conditions and various diseases than other varieties of C. arabicagrowing in the area. Its productivity was lower than the one of Bourbon. Tanganyika D.R. was taken as a basis of two bred varieties of Tanganyika – „D.R. I“ and D.R. II“. Tanganyika was named after the county where it was discovered. Tanganyika D.R. I and II was used later by Scot Laboratory for breeding further cultivars.
152) Tanganyika D.R I –
153) Tanganyika D.R II –
154) Tekisik/Tekisic – is a dwarf mutation of Bourbon from El Salvador. Its branches are placed similarly to Bourbon, under an angle of 45° from the trunk and its berries and seeds are also small. The plants have a low productivity but very high quality. Farmers in Guatemala and Honduras have planted this tree in their gardens to increase their coffee quality. The taste quality of the mentioned variety is extremely high: multi-layered acidity, strong body and intensive sweetness similar to caramel and brown sugar.
155) Tico – originates from Central America.
156) Tupi – was released in 2000 by IAC.
157) Typica (Típica-[in Spanish]) – the oldest variety of C. arabica and also the ascendant of many modern varietites like: Jamaican Blue Mountain, San Ramon, Pache, Villalobos, Java, Jember etc. Typica is a plant of conical shape with vertical trunk and slightly inclined primary branches. Its secondary branches are at a slant of 50-70° in respect to trunk. The plant is high and can grow up to 3,5-4,6m in height. Typica has low productivity with thin coppery leaves and oblong oval berries. It prefers higher growing conditions. Its taste is usually sweet, full and clear. Typica’s acidity is clear and it becomes more intensive on greater heights.
158) Variegata –
159) Villalobos – a mutation of Typica from Costa Rica. Secondary branches are located at a slant of 60° in respect to trunk. The productivity of Villalobos is very high in higher areas. It is extremely resistant towards winds and has high productivity even in areas poor of nutrients. The best result is achieved in an areas with good shadowing. By its taste, Villalobos is notably sweet and with good acidity.
160) Villasarchi/Vila Sarchi – is a hybrid of Bourbon varieties, bred in Costa Rica in a town called Sarchi. Its branches are located at a slant of 45° in respect to trunk. Leaves are bronzy. In greater heights the productivity of the plant is good, especially if planted under shadowing trees and with small chemical fertilizing. Villasarchi has an elegant acidity, intensive berryish notes and great sweetness.
161) Wolisho –
162) Yawan –